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Desperate Haven - The Famine in Dungarvan

24. References

Chapter Five

1. Cork Examiner, 10 January 1848.
2. ibid.
3. Cork Examiner, 10 May 1848.
4. Cork Examiner, 14 June 1848.
5. Cork Examiner, 14 August 1848.

6. The Young Ireland Movement in Waterford, Part 2, Decies xix, 1982.
7. Cork Examiner, 2 August 1848.
8. Cork Examiner, 14 August 1848.
9. Nolan, Peter, James F.X. O'Brien 1828 - 1905, unpublished thesis 1971.
10. Desmond, Liam, Famous attack on Cappoquin Barracks, Dungarvan Observer,  15. December 1990.
11. Nolan, op cit.
12. Cork Examiner, 20 September 1848.

13. Parliamentary Papers, Famine Ireland, 1847-49 Vol. 1V.
14. Cork Examiner, 29 December 1848.

Chapter Ten

1. Burke, Helen, The People and the Poor Law in 19th Century Ireland.England 1987.
2. Extracts from ledgers containing rent receipts and disbursements of the estates of William  S. Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire 1815 - 1828. N.L.I. ms. 6915 - 6923. 15 August 1825, p.31.

Chapter Eleven

1. Burke, Helen.  The People and the Poor Law in 19th c. Ireland.  England 1987.
2. Donnelly, James S., The Land and People of 19th c. Cork.  London 1975.
3. Smith, Cecil Woodham, The Great Hunger, London 1965.
4. Mackay, Donald, Flight From Famine.  Toronto 1990.
5. The Munster Citizen, dated 20 March 1852. British Library, Newspaper Library, 28 February - 11 September 1852.  No. 9300369.
6. The Dungarvan Church of Ireland register records the marriage on 20 October 1821 of Stephen Smallfield Wickings 'late of the 10th Royal Veteran Battalions' to Elizabeth Thulgen.
7. Waterford Workhouse Correspondence 1857.  Decies No. 5, May 1977.

Chapter Twelve

1. Munster Citizen, March 1852.
2. ibid., April 1852.
3. ibid., March 1852.
4. ibid., May 1852.
5. ibid., 14 August 1852.

Chapter Fourteen

1. St. Mary's Parish Accounts Ledger, 13 February, 1881.
2. Dungarvan Journal, No. 8, Vol. 1, July 1883.
3. Donnelly, J.S., The Land & people of 19th.c. Cork.
4. Fraher, William, Calendar of Minutes & Records, Dungarvan Town Commissioners etc.  1855-1950. 1991.

Chapter Fifteen

1. Doctor Richard Graves
Doctor Richard Graves (age 32, son of Shapland Graves) of Helvick Lodge married Maria Anthony (age 24), daughter of Arthur Anthony  of Ringville on 8 June 1846. Inscription in St. Nicholas's churchyard, Ring: Richard Graves M.D. Medical Officer of this district for over 50 years, died 9 February  1901 age 87.

2. Henry Windsor Villiers Stuart (1827-1895)
A cadet in Prince Liechtenstein's Regiment, Austrian Imperial army, Ensign 26th Regiment. Vicar of Buikington, Warwickshire 1852 and Napton 1855. He resigned Holy Orders in 1871 in order to run for Parliament. He was M.P. for Co. Waterford 1873-1874 and 1880-1885. He was commissioned by the government to visit Egypt in 1882 to report on the condition of the people. He was author of Nile Gleanings, Egypt after the war etc. In 1882 he introduced the Labourer's Cottages and Allotments Bill to the House of Commons. In 1865 he married  Mary, the daughter of the Ven. Ambrose Power, Archdeacon of Lismore.

Chapter Sixteen

1. The Munster Citizen, 27 March, and 10 April 1852.

2. Edwards and Williams, The Great Famine
3. Burke, Helen, The People and the Poor Law in 19th century Ireland.  England, 1987

Chapter Seventeen 

1. Nicholls, Sir George, (1856), A History of the Irish Poor Law, p.390  
2. Burke, Helen, The People and the Poor Law in 19th. Century Ireland, England 1987, p. 191.

Chapter Eighteen

1. Report of the Irish Fisheries 1836, H.C. 1837, xxii, pxi.
2. When Carbery died in June 1866 the Board of Guardians passed a vote of sympathy to his wife and particularly referred to his work in assisting the fishermen.
3. Cork Examiner, 10 May 1847.
4. Cork Examiner, 28 June 1848.
5. Cork Examiner, 17 November 1848.
6. Cork Examiner, 22 November 1848.
7. The Munster Citizen, 1 May 1852.
8. Donoghue, Thomas A., The Development of the Ring Fishing Industry 1846 - 64, Decies XVI, January 1981, pp. 3-14.

9. The Rev. James Alcock was born in Waterford in 1805 the son of William Alcock. James entered Trinity College, Dublin in 1822. He was lecturer at St. Olave's in Waterford from 1829 to 1836.
10. Donoghue, op cit., p.7.
11. Cork Examiner, 18 December 1848.
12. ibid.
13. Johnson, Joan,  Quaker Relief  in Waterford during the Famine, Decies No. 51. 1995. See also Joan Johnson, 'The Quaker Relief effort in Waterford', in Brady and Cowman eds., The Famine in Waterford 1845 - 1850. pp.
14. Cork Examiner, 8 March 1848.

Chapter Nineteen

1. Father Toomy was educated in Perugia, in Spain and later in Rome. He was an accomplished linguist and was fluent in several languages. He came to Dungarvan in 1829 and was appointed Prior in 1835 and again in 1855. According to the Prior, James Williams (1841-1916) Father Toomy used to dress in a 'bracked' or half grey coat wearing an ordinary collar and tie.

Joseph Hansard in his History of Waterford (published 1870. p.320) gave the following description of the well associated with Father Toomy:
'The holy well at the rear of the Union Workhouse is much frequented by people who come to Dungarvan for the benefit of the sea. The one to which we have alluded to is the 'Friar's Well' in memory of the Rev. Patrick Toomy...who had in the year 1860 this well cleaned out and a stone cross affixed on it - crowds of people constantly resort to it.'


Chapter Twenty

1. Cecil Woodham-Smith.  The Great Hunger
2. Democratic Programme Of The First Dáil 1919
3. The Economist.
4. U.S. Bureau of the Cencus.
5. Associated Medical Services of Germany 1923
6. A. Sen. Poverty And Famine.
7. Minutes of Fermoy Workhouse.
8. A. Sen. Op. Cit.



Author: William Fraher

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